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Peeling back the layers of the onionThe Tor anonymity network receives no small amount of attention from the mainstream press – not least for its purported association with cybercrime and darknet drug dealings.But what is Tor? And how secure is it? The Daily Swig asked several security and privacy experts to answer all of your questions, and many more.What is Tor?Tor is an internet communication method for enabling online anonymity. The same term is commonly used to refer to both the anonymity network and the open source software that supports it.The Tor name derives from The Onion Router – the name of a pioneering privacy project run by the US Naval Research Lab.How does Tor work?Tor directs internet traffic through a network of thousands of relays, many of which are set up and maintained by volunteers.Messages are encapsulated in layers of encryption, comparable to the layers of an onion. Inside the Tor network are.onion sites, or официальный ‘hidden services’.Tor facilitates anonymized browsing by allowing traffic to pass onto or through the network through nodes that only know the immediately preceding and following node in a relay.The source and destination of messages is obscured by encryption.Tor directs internet traffic through a network of thousands of relaysHow can I access Tor?The easiest way to access the Tor network is through the Tor Browser. The Tor Browser is automatically connected to the Tor network and will place all your requests through it, while ensuring anonymity.In addition, the browser comes with an added functionality that improves your security and privacy by disabling JavaScript, automatic image, video loading and more.The Tor Browser bundle is developed by the Tor Project, a non-profit organisation that carries out research as well as maintaining the software used by the Tor anonymity network.The Tor Browser is currently available for Windows, Linux, and macOS. There’s also a version of Tor Browser for Android but not, as yet, an official version for iOS.What is Tor used for?The Tor Browser is just a web browser, and you can still view the ‘surface’ internet – or ‘clear web’ – using the software.However, the Tor Browser offers an extra level of privacy for normal web use or as a way to bypass government surveillance and censorship.Some sites on the so-called dark web can only be accessed using Tor.
Vince Warrington, managing director of Protective Intelligence, explained: “The dark web – primarily those sites that can only be accessed via Tor – is still generally the host to the illegal and illicit.“Whilst there are some legitimate sites (for example, the BBC now has a.onion version of the BBC News website) our research indicates that over 95% of.onion sites contain illegal or illicit material,” he added.Who uses Tor and why?While most people are only familiar with Tor’s use for illegal activities – such as accessing online markets that sell drugs – many other users access the Tor network.These include:JournalistsPolitical activistsThe US militaryLaw enforcementThose living in repressive regimesAnyone who does not want a third-party to observe their online activitiesTor uses vary from bypassing censorship and avoiding online spying and profiling, to disguising the origin of traffic and hiding sensitive communications.What expectation of anonymity can people have when they use Tor?Tor offers anonymity, but only up to a point.Those using the technology, and looking to keep their identity secret, also need to apply best practices in operational security (OpSec).Charity Wright, a cyber threat intelligence advisor at IntSights and former NSA Chinese espionage expert, explained: “Tor is a browser that can anonymize your network connection and your IP address that you are logging on from.“However, once you venture into illicit spaces, it is important to use pseudonyms and to hide your real name and never reveal your true location, nationality, or identifying pieces of information.“Any small clue can be used for people to find out who you are. Even more, federal agencies and law enforcement will use every detail about an online persona to find a wanted suspect,” she added.Tor is easily accessible via the Tor BrowserHow anonymous is Tor?Tor is aimed at providing anonymous communication, but there have been numerous examples of people whose identities have been unmasked despite using Tor.For example, The FBI recently closed a criminal case against the owner of Freedom Hosting, a dark web service that ran on the Tor network.In addition, several research projects have shown varying levels of successful attacks that either attempted to eavesdrop on Tor-encrypted traffic or identify users.Read more of the latest privacy news from The Daily SwigProtective Intelligence’s Warrington commented: “It’s a myth to think that using Tor (even with a VPN) gives you total anonymity. With the tools we are using nowadays we can slowly strip back the layers of anonymity to find out who is behind the computer.“By using specialist software combined with open source intelligence – basically searching the surface, deep, and dark web for small snippets of information – we can build up a picture of a Tor user who is involved in illegal activity.”The era where Tor was a thorn in the side of law enforcement seems to be coming to an end.Warrington explained: “In the UK, the police and intelligence agencies have access to these tools, and the only limitation on identifying users of the dark web is resources. There’s simply not enough police dedicated to these kinds of investigations.”What are the limitations of Tor, and how can these be overcome?Tor has its limitations. Maintaining online anonymity is much more far reaching an exercise than simply using Tor.Israel Barak, chief information security officer at Cybereason, told The Daily Swig: “Tor, at its core, only gives you network level anonymity. It won't help you with applications on your computer that retain your identity and provide your identity to the internet service providers.“As an example, when an individual connects to Gmail, the computer or device you are using saves your identity, so you don't have to log on in the future.“Tor will not protect your anonymity from this,” he warned.INSIGHT How to become a CISO – Your guide to climbing to the top of the enterprise security ladderWhile the Tor network is designed to keep browsing habits away from service providers or webpage trackers, the most privacy-conscious users can go even further.Boris Cipot, senior security engineer at Synopsys, added: “To achieve the highest level of anonymity, one would need to get rid of any installation of OS or software with tracking, thus allowing the user to enter the Tor network with a clean slate.“This can be achieved with the use of Tails or Qubes OS, which run from a USB stick. They run fully in memory, so it is safe to use on existing hardware, but once activated, there is no trace of you.”The Tails operating system can be combined with Tor to help improve users’ anonymity onlineWhy does Tor take so long to load sites?Using Tor to browse the web involves accepting trade-offs.The Tor Browser gives a user considerable anonymity advantages over other web browsers, such as Edge, Firefox, and Chrome.While standard browsers can leak data that goes a long way to identifying the user – even in ‘private’ mode – Tor was designed with anonymity in mind.RELATED Firefox and Chrome yet to fix privacy issue that leaks user searches to ISPsTor does, however, saddle the user some significant limitations when browsing the internet.For starters, browsing with Tor can be very slow, and so many people are unlikely to want to swap out their current browser.Sluggish traffic speeds arise because data packets take a circuitous route through Tor, bouncing between various volunteers’ computers to reach their destinations.Network latency is always going to be a problem in this scenario – even if you’re fortunate enough to avoid bottlenecks.Tor also makes websites look like they were built 20 years ago, as much of the presentation and customization content of websites is stripped away by Tor, since these technologies can be used to identify the computer that’s being used. What have software developers learned from Tor?Opinions among experts are split over whether or not Tor has done much to directly affect browser development, but at a minimum the technology has done a great deal to raise awareness about privacy.Chad Anderson, senior security researcher at DomainTools, commented: “I don’t know how much we can attribute back to modern browser improvements due to Tor, but I think privacy issues have certainly become more focused.“The browser shift to DNS-over-HTTPS, commonly called DoH, is a boost for user privacy and where DNS didn’t work over Tor before, and in fact was an attack vector for de-anonymizing users, DoH fixes that,” he added.RECOMMENDED A guide to DNS-over-HTTPS – how a new web protocol aims to protect your privacy onlineAnderson continued: “It used to be you could listen to traffic on a Tor exit node… but now that SSL is near ubiquitous thanks to free certificates [from the likes of Let’s Encrypt] that’s less of an issue.”Arthur Edelstein, senior product manager for Firefox Privacy and Security, gave The Daily Swig a list of projects involving collaborations between Mozilla and Tor:First-Party Isolation – This feature was developed jointly by Tor and Mozilla and is now fully integrated into Firefox, although currently disabled by default. It fully prevents users from being tracked across websites via cookies.Fingerprinting Resistance – Also developed jointly between Tor and Mozilla, when Fingerprinting Resistance is enabled in Firefox, it modifies the behavior of a large collection of browser features so they can’t be used to fingerprint users and track them across websites.Proxy bypass protection – Tor contributed a number of patches to Firefox to tighten up proxy usage, so that the browser doesn’t leak the user's IP address when a proxy is in use.How is Tor’s technology itself being further developed?Current examples of Tor’s development projects include proof-of-concept work on human-memorable names, a collaboration with SecureDrop, the open source whistleblowing system based on Tor, among other examples.Tor Project representative Al Smith told The Daily Swig: “Currently, we only partnered with Freedom of the Press Foundation (FPF), but we want to continue expanding the proof-of-concept with other media and public health organizations in the future.” In July 2021, the Tor Project released Tor Browser 10.5, a version of the browser that improves censorship circumvention for Tor users by "simplifying the connection flow, detecting censorship, and providing bridges"."Snowflake is now a default bridge option," a representative of the Tor Project explained. "Snowflake is a kind of pluggable transport allows volunteers to download a web extension on Firefox or Chrome and easily run an anti-censorship proxy (aka "bridge")". How is the Tor Project coping with the coronavirus pandemic?The Tor Project was recently obliged to lay off a third of its core staff in response to the coronavirus pandemic. The Daily Swig asked how the non-profit has sought to minimize the effect of this on development pipelines. A representative of the Tor Project responded: “Because we are now a smaller organization, we are creating more projects where different teams (e.g., Browser, Network, UX, Community, Anti-Censorship) come together and work on the same issue, instead of working in isolated groups on disparate pieces of work.“This is the approach we took to improve onion services for the Tor Browser 9.5 release,” they added.Is Tor safe?Despite the many and varied caveats about Tor the security experts we spoke to raised, none made any suggestion that the technology was ‘unsafe’.In a typical response, Charles Ragland, a security engineer at threat intel agency Digital Shadows, explained: “Generally speaking, as long as security updates are in place, and users are following privacy and anonymity best practices, yes, Tor is safe to use.”INTERVIEW Shodan founder John Matherly on IoT security, dual-purpose hacking tools, and information overload

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Heard the name Tor but not sure what it is? Here’s a brief introduction to The Onion Router, what using Tor Browser for privacy entails, and what .onion sites are.Tor, short for The Onion Router, is an anonymous peer-to-peer darknet designed to enhance privacy and resist both censorship and surveillance. You can use it to access both standard websites with a bit of extra privacy and security and special .onion sites that can only be reached when connected to the Tor network.The term “darknet” has all sorts of ominous undertones, but its modern usage simply refers to a network of computers that uses the internet to send data but is only accessible by using specific software, networking configurations or authorisation (passwords, keys, or IP address-based restictions for example).The general term “overlay network” is used to describe this practice of running one communications network on top of another. In practice, a darknet has a lot in common with an an enterprise VPN, where people working remotely connect to their office network and are assigned a local address with local access to that network.People tend to use the term “darknet” in the same breath as the “dark web. As we’ve established, a darknet is a network of computers that use the internet’s infrastructure to host and send data that’s only accessible to people using the right tool to access it, such as the Tor network.The dark web consists of websites that are only available via a darknet, such as onion sites on Tor. The deep web refers to sites that aren’t indexed by search engines, ranging from sites and services that require a login to access to pages with no links leading to them from elsewhere on the web. Many onion sites are not indexed anywhere and can only be accessed if you have a direct address for them, making them deep web sites.The normal web outside Tor is, by comparison, referred to as the “surface web” or “clear web” – I’ll be using the latter term in this article.Kaspersky VPN Secure Connection – 34% OffThe secure way to enjoy the web without compromising on speed is now 34% off at £34.12 a year, equivalent to £2.84 per month, with coverage for up to 5 devices.Compatible with Android™ and iOS®KasperskyWas £52.50£34.12/year (£2.84 monthly equivalent)View OfferPrecautions and privacyWhen you’re connected to Tor, for example via Tor Browser, your ISP can see that you’re connected to a Tor relay, but your traffic is encrypted. As with VPNs, this layer of anonymity only works until you sign into a service linked to your identity, such as Google or Facebook, so it’s probably best not to do that.Some services, such as secure email provider ProtonMail, have dedicated onion sites and can be securely connected to via Tor, but if you’re trying to be anonymous, you should keep the services you use on Tor separate from those you use on day-to-day basis.Facebook has an onion site, too. This might be useful for contacting friends and family if you’re on the wrong side of an state-level internet communications block, but I’d personally be disinclined to trust the privacy claims of a company whose entire business model is based upon selling their users’ eyes to advertisers.Finally, as Tor only encrypts TCP traffic, you should avoid using services such as Skype, which can leak your originating IP address via UDP. For similar data leakage reasons, you shouldn’t use it for torrenting.Installing Tor BrowserGetting onto Tor is trivially easy these days. Go to https://www.torproject.org/download/ and download the correct version for your OS. Run it and you’ll get a connection screen. You’ll probably want to tick the box to tell it to always connect automatically, so that you’re immediately connected to the Tor network whenever you start the browser.If you’re in a country or connected via a service that attempts to actively block Tor, you may need to configure the browser’s Tor Network Settings to use a bridge, but most users can ignore the advanced settings until they have specific need of them.What’s on Tor?By default, Tor Browser uses the Tor version of the Duck Duck Go search engine to allow you to search the clear web as normal, just it accessing via Tor for extra privacy. This is the most significant use for most people.If you want to access onion sites, however, you’ll need to take a few more steps, though we don’t recommend any reader do this unless they have a specific, legal, need.Many prominent onion sites are promoted on the clear web. For example, the BBC lists its onion sites, launched in 2019, on an easily-searchable clear web site. You’ll find its main English-language dark web service at https://www.bbcnewsd73hkzno2ini43t4gblxvycyac5aw4gnv7t2rccijh7745uqd.onion/. You’ll find others discussed on clear web Tor enthusiast forums, such as r/Tor.Kaspersky VPN Secure Connection – 34% OffThe secure way to enjoy the web without compromising on speed is now 34% off at £34.12 a year, equivalent to £2.84 per month, with coverage for up to 5 devices.Compatible with Android™ and iOS®KasperskyWas £52.50£34.12/year (£2.84 monthly equivalent)View OfferMany journalists and publications use SecureDrop (http://sdolvtfhatvsysc6l34d65ymdwxcujausv7k5jk4cy5ttzhjoi6fzvyd.onion/) so that sources can anonymously share documents and blow the whistle with reduced risk of exposure.Meanwhile, on Tor itself, old-fashioned link directories exist alongside a handful of onion spiders. Just don’t expect the glossy efficiency of Google and Bing search, as onion sites tend to be resistant to traditional automated search engine robots.Although law enforcement and other government agencies cheerfully browse, use, seize and run sites on Tor, it’s a largely unregulated and unfiltered space – you’ll only hear from said agencies if you’ve been up to anything you shouldn’t have and get caught up in one of their sweeps of illegal activity.Expect to see more scams, malware, phishing attacks, random porn, doxxing sites, money laundering, and bootleg wares when casually browsing than you’d get on the clear web. This is vaguely interesting as both a throwback to certain parts of the early web and as a glimpse of the internet’s seedy underbelly, but if you’re not here for security reasons, the low-grade dodginess gets old fast.You might like…
Tor onion site
Адреса веб-сайтов, заканчивающиеся на «.onion», не похожи на обычные доменные имена, и вы не можете получить к ним доступ с помощью обычного веб-браузера. Адреса, заканчивающиеся на «.onion», указывают на скрытые службы Tor в «глубокой сети».Предупреждение : Многие сайты .onion содержат очень неприятные вещи, и многие из них, скорее всего, являются мошенничеством. Мы рекомендуем держаться подальше от «просмотра» сайтов .onion - вместо этого используйте это, только если у вас есть конкретный сайт, к которому вы хотите получить доступ по уважительной причине.Что такое сайт .onion?СВЯЗАННЫЕ С: Как просматривать анонимно с помощью TorTor - сокращение от лукового маршрутизатора - это анонимизирующая компьютерная сеть . Он частично финансируется правительством США и предназначен для помощи людям в странах, где доступ в Интернет может подвергаться цензуре или контролю. Когда вы подключаетесь к Tor, ваша интернет-активность передается через сеть Tor, анонимизируя вашу интернет-активность, чтобы ее нельзя было отследить, и чтобы вы могли получить доступ к веб-сайтам, которые могут быть заблокированы в вашей стране.Итак, когда вы заходите на сайт google.com через Tor, ваш запрос переходит от ретранслятора Tor к ретранслятору Tor прежде, чем он достигнет «узел выхода» . Затем этот выходной узел связывается для вас с Google.com и отправляет вам обратно данные, которыми Google ответил. Google видит в этом IP-адрес выходного узла, связываясь с ним, а не ваш IP-адрес.СВЯЗАННЫЕ С: Действительно ли Tor анонимен и безопасен?Но это означает, что «последняя миля» трафика может быть отслежена организацией, отслеживающей или даже запускающей выходные узлы, особенно если ваш трафик не зашифрован. Адрес «.onion» указывает на скрытую службу Tor, которая представляет собой сервер, к которому вы можете получить доступ только через Tor. Это означает, что ваши действия в браузере не могут быть отслежены кем-то, кто наблюдает за выходными узлами Tor. Это также означает, что кто-то, размещающий веб-сайт, может скрыть этот сервер с помощью сети Tor, чтобы никто не мог его найти - теоретически.Например, Facebook поддерживает официальный адрес скрытых служб Tor по адресу «https://facebookcorewwwi.onion/». Это позволяет вам получить доступ к Facebook через Tor, и ваше соединение никогда не покидает Tor, где его можно будет отслеживать. Это может быть полезно, например, в странах, где заблокирован Facebook.Необязательно использовать Tor постоянно, так как это медленнее, чем обычный просмотр. Но это полезный инструмент для анонимности вашей интернет-активности и обхода цензуры.Как получить доступ к сайтам .onion с помощью браузера TorЧтобы получить доступ к адресу .onion, вам необходимо получить к нему доступ через браузер Tor. Это модифицированная версия Firefox, настроенная для подключения к сайтам через сеть Tor.Загрузите браузер Tor с веб-сайта проекта Tor, чтобы продолжить. Он доступен для Windows, Mac и Linux.На телефоны и планшеты Android вы можете скачать официальную Прокси-приложение Orbot или Браузер Orfox из Google Play. Проект Tor не предлагает официальных приложений Tor для iPhone или iPad.После запуска браузера Tor введите адрес .onion в его адресную строку. Например, чтобы получить доступ к скрытой службе Facebook, вы должны ввести следующий адрес:хттпс://фасебооксоревшви.онион/Или, чтобы получить доступ к скрытой службе поисковой системы DuckDuckGo, вы должны ввести:хттп://зг2упл4пг6куфк4м.онион/При использовании браузера Tor вы можете нажимать ссылки на адреса .onion, и они загружаются нормально. Но они будут работать только в браузере Tor, когда они подключены к Tor.Не заходите на сайты .onion через прокси, такие как Tor2WebВы также можете получить доступ к сайтам .onion без запуска Tor через прокси, которые подключаются к Tor за вас. Прокси-сервер подключается к Tor для вас, а затем перенаправляет вам трафик через обычный Интернет.Однако это очень плохая идея! Вы теряете анонимность, которую обычно имеете при подключении к сайту .onion через браузер Tor. В конце концов, в этом весь смысл адреса .onion. Веб-сайт, к которому вы получаете доступ, сохраняет свою анонимность, но кто-то, отслеживающий ваше соединение, может увидеть, к какому веб-сайту вы подключаетесь. Провайдер услуг также может видеть, к чему вы подключаетесь, и отслеживать любые пароли и другую личную информацию, которую вы предоставляете через соединение.Tor2web функционирует таким образом, но вам не следует его использовать. Например, если вы пытаетесь подключиться к скрытой службе Facebook используя Tor2web , Facebook блокирует соединение и говорит вам, что это плохая идея.Ищете списки сайтов .onion? Поищите в Интернете списки сайтов .onion, и вы найдете с чего начать. Однако многие каталоги сайтов .onion сами хранятся на сайтах .onion, к которым вы можете получить доступ только через Tor.Опять же, будьте осторожны: многие сайты .onion содержат очень неприятные вещи, и многие из них, вероятно, являются мошенничеством. Мы рекомендуем по возможности держаться от них подальше. Этот прием лучше всего использовать, когда вы хотите перейти на определенный сайт .onion.